Antennas and communication
In a wireless system, the antenna is the interface between the electric circuit and waves propagating in the surrounding medium. From a system point of view, the antenna suffers from several fundamental limitations in terms of available bandwidth, gain etc versus, for instance, the available volume or complexity in the matching network. New antenna concepts such as MIMO (Multiple Input, Multiple Output) provide new opportunities for increased performance.
Electromagnetic scattering and design
Under this heading, the scattering problem is of central importance, that is, when a prescribed electromagnetic field interacts with a particular object (the scatterer), the task is to determine the scattered field. There is often a particular design goal associated with the scattering, for instance to minimize the scattering for all frequencies, maximize the transmission through a panel for a certain frequency band, or maximize the scattering in order to obtain the most information on the object.
Inverse scattering and imaging
In this category, the goal is to infer information on some object or structure using electromagnetic waves, including light. Depending on what is a priori known about the object and scattering situation, different strategies may be employed. A more specific set of problems is termed imaging. Here, the aim is to obtain an overall image of the scatterer, for instance its shape or location. This can sometimes be obtained in a relatively straightforward way from the scattering data, especially in the high frequency limit (ray optics).
Material modeling and electromagnetic interaction
In these projects, the focus is on the interaction between the electromagnetic field and material structures. This includes wave propagation in complex materials and structures (inhomogeneous, nonlinear, anisotropic, chiral, frequency selective etc), as well as mathematical modeling of physical mechanisms behind the interaction (representations of dispersive effects, homogenization).